GERMAN REFORMED: Reformed churches in general are those that began with the doctrine of Luther, then embraced those of Zwingli, and finally swerved towards Calvinism. As a result they are infected with the errors of all these false teachers.
DISCIPLES OF CHRIST: Sometimes called "Campbellites" after Thomas Campbell, of Bethany, Va., who, with his son, Alexander, was their founder. He had been a Presbyterian and then a Baptist before starting his own sect.
He taught that the Bible was the only rule of faith; that the Old Testament was binding only on the Jews; and denied the Eucharist.
TRUE REFORMED DUTCH: Organized by Sol Froeligh, a Dutch clergyman, who led a secession movement in the Reformed Dutch Church in 1822.
He held that the Reformed Dutch Church had become erroneous in doctrine, corrupt in practice, and lax in discipline. During recent years the sect has almost died out.
HICKSITES: Founded by Elias Hicks (1748-1830), an American minister of the Society of Friends (Quakers), who became leader of a faction in the Society in 1817, and broke away from the main body in 1828.
He denied the divinity of Christ, the Atonement, and the Trinity.
MORMONS: Organized by Joseph Smith, the son of a Vermont farmer, and born in that state Dec. 23, 1805. He claimed to have received a new revelation in 1827, which resulted in the "Book of Mormon", published at Palmyra, N. Y., in March 1830. Smith was killed by a mob in Carthage, Ill., on June 27, 1844, and Brigham Young succeeded him as leader of the sect.
The mormons have a wrong conception of the fall of man, apparently holding Adam's sin to have been one of lust; believe God endowed with a body of flesh and bone; hold matter to have existed spiritually before creation; the bond of marriage to be eternal; and believe in a happy Millennium on this earth.
CATHOLIC APOSTOLICAL CHURCH: Sometimes called Irvingites after their founder, Edward Irving, an elequent and distinguished Scottish clergyman, born in 1792. At one time he was a Presbyterian minister, but being accused of heresy, was ejected from the church. He died at Glasgow in 1834, the sect bearing his name having been formed in 1831.
The Irvingites repudiate the doctrine of Transubstantiation; hold that by a new out-pouring of God through the Holy Ghost the prophetic and apostolic offices have been re-established.
PERFECTIONISTS: Founded by John H. Noyes, who was born at Brattleboro, Vt., in 1811. At one time he was a Congregationalist minister, but organized his own sect ill 1845. Being forced to flee to Canada to escape persecution on account of his marriage system, he died there in 1886.
He taught equality of the sexes and community of goods.
SALVATION ARMY: Organized by William Booth (1829-1912), born in Nottingham, England. At first a Methodist evangelist, in 1865 he organized a quasi-military society to promote a revival of religion among the masses.
The Salvation Army is evangelical in doctrine and aims to harmonize with all churches.
CHRISTIAN SCIENTISTS: The popular name of the "Church of Christ, Scientist" which was founded in 1876 at Boston, Mass., by the late Mrs. Mary Baker Glover Patterson Eddy.
The great hobby of Christian Scientists is "Mental healing", i. e., getting rid of the idea that there is really such a thing as matter, sickness, sin, and the consequences of the same; they deny the Blessed Trinity; the divinity of Christ; the creation of man; the maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary; the future resurrection of all men as well as the Resurrection of Christ; they brand original sin, death and hell as delusions; and consider angels to be, not spirits, but only divine messages.
OLD CATHOLICS: The sect organized in German speaking countries to combat the dogma of Papal Infallibility. Its rise may be traced from the excommunication of Ignatz von Dollinger, historian, priest and theologian, on Apr. 18, 1871, for refusing to accept the dogma of Infallibility.
They deny the Infallibility of the Pope.
MODERNISTS: An heretical movement of modern times that attempted to explain the faith by rationalizing it. The errors of this attempt were condemned by Pope Pius X.
The system of the Modernists embraces the errors of all preceding heresies.
DOWIEITES: Followers of John Alexander Dowie, who was born in Edinburgh in 1847. At one time he was an ordained clergyman of the Congregationalist denomination in South Australia. In 1882 he established an independent tabernacle in Melbourne, and took up faith healing. He came to the United States in 1888, and in 1896 organized a "church", which, in 1906, suspended him for fraud, tyranny and polygamous tendencies. He was evidently insane when he died in 1907.
Dowieites deny the efficacy of Baptism as well as its necessity; believe that it is sinful to have recourse to a physician in time of sickness, relying on faith-cures; they deny the authority of the Catholic Church to teach the doctrine of Christ.
JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES: Founded in 1872 by Charles Taze Russell, Former Congregationalist. Succeeded by Judge Rutherford, a Missouri lawyer in 1916.
The witnesses deny the Doctrine of the Trinity, the Divinity of Christ, and the Immortality of the Human Soul. Satan is Master on Earth, where he organized the visible part of his empire by founding churches, the great capitalistic organizations and civil societies. Characteristics practices flow naturally from their doctrines, such as refusing to bear arms, salute the flag, and participate in the affairs of the secular governments.
©1997-1998, Catholic Truth Publications
Last edited March 17, 1998