BOGOMILISTS: An heretical sect started by Basil, a monk and physician, who gathered about him twelve "apostles" and made his presence felt at Constantinople about the year 1118. The Emperor Alexis I, having received a frank exposition of the doctrine of this sect, demanded that they should retract their errors. Some who would not comply were thrown into prison, but Basil was condemned to death (1118) and burned.
They held that there were two fundamental principles, one of good, the other of evil; taught that God the Father was incorporeal but had a human appearance; that He had two sons, one of whom had creative power; that man has two creators; rejected the Old Testament in parts; did away with baptism by water; denied the Real Presence; condemned marriage; rejected images, and prohibited the eating of meat.
BERENGARIANS: Followers of Berengarius, who was born at Tours about 999. He received a good education, became distinguished for learning and intelligence, and soon had a considerable following. Later he became Archdeacon of Angers. Errors crept into his doctrine which were condemned by the Church in numerous Councils, and Berengarius himself was for a while imprisoned. He retracted these, however, before his retirement to St. Cosme, near Tours, where he died in union with the Church in the year 1088.
Berengarius taught that the Body and Blood of Christ were really present in the Holy Eucharist, but only by a spiritual or intellectual presence; that the substance of bread and the substance of wine remain unchanged in their nature, but by consecration become spiritually the very Body and Blood of Christ.
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Last edited March 17, 1998